26 Oct

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്

 

 

 

 

 

ENGLISH STRUCTURE

  1. No sooner….. than

Points to remember :

  1. No sooner is used instead of as soon as
  2. No sooner is a comparative and so it is followed by than
  3. If the no sooner construction begins with a negative, its pattern is V+S
  4. a) As soon as he goes out …………

No sooner does he go out ……………

Verb first and then the subject (does+he)

  1. b) As soon as he went out …………..

No sooner did he go out ………….. (did+he)

  1. If the no soonerclause begins with the subject, there is no such inversion of subject and verb

ie : The pattern should be S+V

eg: The Headmaster had no sooner entered the class than the students stood up

The Headmaster    –    Subject

had entered         –    Verb

  1. No sooner =  as soon as / at once / without delay / the moment that
  2. If two actions (verbs) occur one after the other, the first action comes with no sooner and as soon as

Combine each pair using no sooner…than

Questions

  1. The bus arrives. The passangersrush to get into it.
  2. The train had arrived. The passangersrushed towards the compartments
  3. The guests arrived. The party began
  4. The captain gave the order. The soldiers stopped at once.
  5. The guard blow the whistle. The train began to move at once.
  6. Sudhasaw She ran to her and embraced her.
  7. The bell rang. She students left the class.
  8. The boys saw the watch man. Suddenly they ran away
  9. The lightening flashed. Immediately I went inside the house.
  10. The fire engine arrived. At once it began to pump water on the burning hut.

Answers :

  1. No sooner does the bus arrive than the passengers rush to get into it.
  2. No sooner had the train arrived than the passangers rushed towards the compartments.
  3. No sooner had the guests arrived than the party began

No sooner did

OR the guests arrive than the party began

  1. No sooner had the captain given the order than the soldiers stopped at once.
  2. No sooner had the guard blown the whistle than the train began to move.
  3. No sooner hadSudhaseen Baby than she ran to her and embraced.
  4. No sooner had the bell rung than the students left the class
  5. No sooner did the boys see the watchman than they ran away.
  6. No sooner had the lightning flashed than I went inside the house.
  7. No sooner had the fire engine arrived than it began to pump water on the hut.

 

 

Change the following sentences

using no sooner…….than :

            Questions :

  1. I will go home, the moment that I get permission
  2. As soon as my brother drank the medicine, he began to feel better.
  3. As soon as the bus arrives, the passangersrush to get into it.
  4. As soon as the tom cat saw the dog, it sat on the road.
  5. As soon as the fire broke out, the people cried frantically
  6. As soon as the strikes approach the main gate, the watchman close
  7. As soon as they open the boxes, sweet smell comes out.
  8. As soon as he got the message, he fainted.
  9. As soon as the magician opened his box, a bird flew up.
  10. As soon as she reached her office, she informed me of her promotion.

Answers :

  1. No sooner do I get permission than I will go home.
  2. No sooner had my brother drunk the medicine than he began to feel better.
  3. No sooner does the bus arrive than the passangers rush to get into it.
  4. No sooner did the tom cat see the dog than it sat on the road.
  5. No sooner did the fire break out than the people cried frantically.
  6. No sooner do the strikes approach the main gate than the watchman close it.
  7. No sooner do they open the boxes than sweet smell comes out.
  8. No sooner did he get the message than he fainted.
  9. No sooner had the magician opened the box than a bird flew up.
  10. No sooner had she reached her office than she informed me.

 

 

  1. As soon As

Points to remember :

  1. In as soon as construction, S+V is the pattern.
  2. With the as soon as clausecomes the action (the verb) that occurs first.
  3. If the sentence begins with as soon as, it ends with a coma.

eg:  1. He saw me. At once he stopped his car.

First occurance       :  saw

Second occurance  :  stopped

As soon as he saw me, he stopped his car.

2.The boy saw the tiger lashing its tail and charging down on him. He ran for the

nearesttree.

As soon as the boy saw the tiger lashing its tail and charging down on him, he ran

for the nearest tree.

  1. The fire engine arrived. At once it began to pump water on the burning house.

As soon as the fire engine arrived, it began to pump water on the burning house

  1. I reached the station. At once the train left.

As soon as I reached the station, the train left.

  1. I thief saw a police man coming. Immediately he took to his heels.

As soon as the thief saw a police man, he took to his heels.

  1. The teacher came. At once all the students stoop up.

As soon as he teacher came,  all the students stoop up.

  1. The bell rang. At once the students entered the class room.

As soon as the bell rang, the students entered the class room.

  1. The national anthem began then all stood up.

As soon as the national anthem began, all stood up.

  1. The lights went off. At once the robbers approached the shop.

As soon as the lights went off, the robbers approached the shop.

  1. He went to bed. Within no time he slept.

As soon as he went to bed, he slept.

Change the following sentences using as soon as :

Questions :

  1. When the guests arrived, the party began.

As soon as the guests arrived, the party began.

  1. I saw his face and at once knew what happened.

As soon as I saw his face, I knew what had happened.

  1. People gathered when they heard the screech of brakes.

As soon as people heard the screech of brakes, they gathered

  1. The bulb burned out the moment that it was switched on.

As soon as the bulb was switched on, it burned out.

  1. We will start the moment you are

We will start as soon as you are ready.

  1. No sooner had Krishna seenKuchela than he ran to him.

As soon as Krishna had seenKuchala, he ran to him.

  1. No sooner was the toy snatched from the child than it began to cry.

was snatched  (passive).  Tom snatchedthe toy

snatched   (active) . The toy was snatched

  1. No sooner did the referee whistle than he kicked the ball.

As soon as the referee whistled, he kicked the ball.

  1. No sooner does the sun set than it gets dark.

As soon as the sun sets, it gets dark.

  1. No sooner is the lightning seen than we hear the thunder.

As soon as the lightning is seen, Wehear the thunder

is seen    (passive)

see / sees  (active)

We see the lightning   (active)

The lightning is seen(passive)

3.Not only……….but also

Points to remember :

  1. It is a co-ordinating conjunction
  2. If joins two clauses of equal rank
  3. One clause carries an ordinary fact or a common idea and the other one carries an uncommon fact or an addition fact.
  4. Not only + common fact

But also + additional fact

eg:  1. Trees are important to man. They are important to birds and animals too.

to man (ordinary)

to birds and animals (additional)

Trees are important not only to man but also to birds and animals

  1. Mahatma Gandhi preached high ideals. He also practiced them in his life.

Mahatma Gandhi not only preached high ideals but also practiced them in his life.

  1. We should plant trees wherever we can

We should look after them will too

We should not only plant trees wherever we can but also look after them well.

  1. Trees supply us with many of the conveniences of our daily life. They also support the very life of living things.

Trees not only supply us with many of the conveniences of our daily life but also support the very life of living things

  1. She gave us a nice dinner . She also drove us back home.

She not only gave us a nice dinner but also drove us back home.

  1. The road is narrow. It is also slippery.

The road is not only narrow but also slippery.

  1. They had to clean the rooms. Besides they had to clean the premises.

They had to clean not only the rooms but also the premises.

  1. Those boys are unintelligent. They are also trouble some.

Those boys are not only unintelligent but also trouble some.

  1. The Amazon is a wide river. It is a long river also.

The Amazon is not only a wide river but also a long one.

  1. Tagore was a great poet. He was also a great novelist.

Tagore was not only a great poet but also a great novelist.

Rewrite the following sentences using not only……….but also :

Questions :

  1. Most teachers have to teach English as well as their subjects.
  2. There are a few nominated members as well as elected members in the RajyaSabha.
  3. A plus two student has to study English and an Indian language as well as a few subjects of his choice.
  4. Chemmeen was praised for its music as well as its photography.
  5. He had invited his friends and neighbours as well as his relatives.
  6. God made great things. God made small things.
  7. Aarav carried his sister’s books as well as his own.
  8. Our history teacher is on leave today. Our class teacher has to do her work too.
  9. Aathira has two silk sarees for occasional use. She has a dozen sarees for daily use.
  10. The Bishop gave Jean Valjeen some food. He also gave him a soft bed to sleep on.
  11. Our Municipality keeps the main roads in good condition. It Keeps the lanes too in good conditions.

Answers :

  1. Most teachers have to teach not only their subjects but also English.
  2. There are not only elected members in the RajyaSabha but also a few nominated members.
  3. A plus two student has to study not only a few subjects of his choice but also English and an Indian language.
  4. Chemmeen was praised not only for its photography but also for its music.
  5. He had invited not only his relatives but also his friendsand neighbours.
  6. God made not only great things but also small things
  7. Aarav carried not only his books but also his sister’s
  8. Our class teacher has to do not only his own work but also history teacher’s work
  9. Aathira has not only a dozen sarees for daily use but also two silk sarees.
  10. The Bishop gave Jean Valjeen not only some food but also a soft bed to sleep on.
  11. Our municipality keeps not only the main roads but also the lanes in good condition.

 

  1. Both ………. And

Points to remember :

  1. Both ……. and is an emphatic form of and
  2. Two points are connected with ‘both’ and ‘and’
  3. After ‘both’ a point and the second point after ‘and’.
  4. Two points are equal in importance.

eg:  1. Boban is clever. He is skillful

Boban is both clever and skillful

  1. Ravi is my friend. Babu is also my friend.

Both Ravi and Babu are my friends

  1. You are welcome. Your friends are also welcome.

Both you and your friends are welcome

  1.   The minister is guilty. The officers are also guilty.

Both the minister and the officers are guilty.

  1.   Suku is industrious. His sister is also industrious

Both Suku and his sister are industrious.

  1.   The bride has arrived. The bridegroom has also arrived.

Both Bride and bridegroom have arrived.

  1.   The Chief Minister is dictatorial. The Prime Minister is also dictatorial.

Both the Chief Minister and the Prime Minister are dictatorial.

  1.   He was bored. He was irritated

He was both bored and irritated

  1.   Mr. Fagin is greedy. He is dishonest

Mr. Fagin is both greedy and dishonest

  1.   Anushree is strong. She is also tall

Anusree is both strong and tall

 

  1. Too ………. To

Points to remember

  1. ‘Too’ shows sufficiency or excess
  2. At the same time it has a negative effect
  3. So it is followed by to infinitive
  4. To infinitive gives negative sense

She is too small to carry the bag

too small  =  very small

to carry     =  cannot carry

  1. ‘Too…. to’ can be changed into ‘so that….not’

She is so small that she cannot carry the bag

eg:  1. He is very old. He cannot go out alone.

He is too old to go out alone.

to go out = cannot go out

  1. He is very lazy. He cannot get a first class

He is too lazy to get a first class

  1. Babu is very clever. You cannot cheat him

Two separate subjects.

So before to infinitive : for + II subject

Babu is too clever for you to cheat.

  1. This tea is very hot. I cannot drink it

Two separate subjects

This tea is too hot for me to drink

  1. This question is very difficult. She cannot answer it.

This question is too difficult for her to answer.

  1. This box is very heavy. He cannot lift it

This box is too heavy for him to lift.

  1. This hill is very steep. She cannot climb it

This hill is too steep for her to climb

  1. They were tough questions. I could not answer them

The questions were too tough for me to answer

  1. It was very dark. They could not see the way

It was too dark for them to see the way

  1. Mary was very poor. She could not buy a new mobile phone.

Mary was too poorto buy a new mobile phone.

Change the following sentences

Using too………to

Questions :

  1. I am so tired that I cannot do any more work today
  2. The sareewas so costly that she could not buy
  3. The children were so frightened that they could not say a word.
  4. The news was so good that it could not be believed.

Could not believe  (active)

Could not be believed (passive)

  1. The thief ran so fast that we could not catch
  2. The room was so small that the meeting could not be held

Could not hold (active)

Could not be held (passive)

  1. She is so old that she cannot think of another marriage.
  2. You are so young that you cannot join us.
  3. I was so busy that I could not talk to all the guests.
  4. They are so poor that they cannot rent such a house.

Answers :

  1. I am too tired to do any more work today.
  2. The saree was too costly for her to buy
  3. The children were too frightened to say a word.
  4. The news was too good to be believed

To believe (active)

To be believed (passive)

  1. The thief ran too fast for us to catch.
  2. The room was too small for the meeting to be held.
  3. She is too old to think of another marriage
  4. You are too young to join us.
  5. I was too busy totalk to all the guests.
  6. They are too poor to rent such a house.
  7. So………..that……….not

Points to remember :

  1. So………that……..not is equivalent to too…….to
  2. Point of excess comes with Negative point comes after that

eg:  1. He is too late to hear the first speech

He is so late that he cannot hear the first speech

  1. He is too proud to beg

He is so proud that he cannot beg

  1. This fact is too evident to require proof

This fact is so evident that it does not require proof.

  1. She was sobbing too deeply to make any answer.

She was sobbing so deeply that she could not make any answer.

  1. Solomon was very wise. He could not be fooled by the queen of Sheeba.

Solomon was so wise that he could not be fooled by the queen of Sheeba

  1. He is too lazy to succeed in life.

He is so lazy that he cannot succeed in life

  1. He works too hard to fail

He works so hard that he cannot fail

  1. He is too lazy to get a first class.

He is so lazy that he cannot get a first class.

  1. She is too weak to stand up

She is so weak that she cannot stand up.

  1. He is too old to go out alone.

He is so old that he cannot go out alone.

Rewrite the following sentences using so…..that….not

  1. The trunk is too heavy to be lifted
  2. He is too obstinate for me to mend
  3. It is too difficult for me to solve
  4. The portions are too vast to be covered in two months
  5. This work itstoo difficult to be finished in a day
  6. The corona situation is too bad to be set right
  7. The crowd became too unruly to be controlled
  8. The problem was too complicated to be solved
  9. The mountain is too steep to be climed
  10. He is too tired to walk

Answers :

  1. The trunk is so heavy that it cannot be lifted

Can lift  (active)

Can be lifted  (passive)

  1. He is soobstimatethat I cannot mend him
  2. It is so difficult that I cannot solve it
  3. The portions are so vast that they cannot be covered in two months
  4. This work is so heavy that it cannot be finished in a day
  5. The corona situation is so bad that it cannot be set right
  6. The crowd became so unruly that it could not be controlled
  7. The problem was so complicated that it could not be solved
  8. The mountain is so steep that it cannot be climbed
  9. He is so tired that he cannot walk.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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