19 Aug

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് – 19

(ചൂര്യയി ചന്ദ്രന്‍)

English Structure – 6


  1. Every and All
  • Every is a determiner *  Every is an adjective.
  • It is generally used before a singular noun.
  • Every + singular noun + singular verb
  • Every is equal to all
  • The two words are used in different structures.
  • All means a number of people or things considered as a group.

Every means a number of people or things considered invidually.

Eg:    1.  Everyone likes an honest man.

  1. Everything has been returned
  2. Every seat in the hall was occupied
  3. Every child loves sweets
  4. Every body has attended the party
  5. All children love sweets
  6. All are equal before law
  7. I like all music

(all before uncountable nouns)

  1. She was here all day

(all = from morning to night)

  1. I have sent letters to all my friends
  2. I have sent letters to every my friends  r
  3. I have sent letters to every friend I have


  1. Each / Every
  • Each and every are both normally used with singular nouns.
  • Each of them a            Every of them  r
  • Each with two or more people or things

Every with three or more people or things

  • Singular verb is used with each and every

Eg:    1.  Each of us has two bags

  1. Each of you + singular verb
  2. Each of them + singular verb
  3. Each and every man and woman has a vote
  4. Each of the boys was given a prize

(Each is a pronoun)

  1. Each boy was given a prize

(Each qualifies boy. So it is an adjective)

  • Each and every is an emphative form

Eg:  Each and every student should attend the parade.


  1. Some / Any
  • Some is used with affirmative
  • Any is used with negative
  • Any is used in questions
  • In offers and requests some is used
  • Someone takes a singular verb
  • Any goes with hardly, barely and scarcely.

Eg:      1.  Some birds can fly very high in the sky.

  1. You must give him some food and a cup of coffee.
  2. There are some beautiful flowers in the park
  3. The tea is very hot, I must put some milk in it.
  4. Put some butter on the bread.
  5. Is there any more coffee ?
  6. You can take any book you want.
  7. She hasn’t got any friends. So she is unhappy.
  8. Have you bought some paper and a pen ?

(Some is used in the interrogative because the expected answer is


  1. Is there any milk left ?


  1. Since / For


  • Since is used to express time “from that point to the time of speaking”.

Eg:  1. He has been reading since 9 am.

(ie.  He is still reading at the time of speaking)

  1. We have been friends since our boyhood days

(ie.  Friendship continues even now)

  1. I have worked here since 2010.
  2. I have been reading a novel since breakfast
  3. He has been off work since the spread of covid – 19.
  • Since + point of time.
  • For + duration of time.

Eg:  1.  I haven’t seen you for ten months.

(ie. I see you now.)

  1. We have lived in Kannur for five years

(ie. Still we live there)

  1. We lived there for five years

(ie. We don’t live there now)

Exercise :

  1. He has been sleeping –  hours
  2. We’ve been studying English –  ten years
  3. He has been living here –  1990
  4. I have been waiting –  five o’clock
  5. They have been very busy –  last Monday
  6. She has been teaching in that school –  2010
  7. It has been raining –  yester night
  8. What have you been doing –  yesterday ?
  9. I have been waiting –  two hours, but she has not come yet.
  10. They have been building that bridge  –  several months, but they have not finished.


  1. For   For         3. Since       4.  Since      5. Since       6. since
  2. since 8.  Since      9.  For         10.  for


  1. Had better


  • Had better is used to give strong advice
  • Had better refers to the immediate future, but the form is past.
  • It is more urgent than should or ought
  • After had better ,we use bare infinitive. The negative is had better not.

Eg:     1.  You had better go now.

  1. I had better try again.
  2. You had better hurry up (ie. You must hurry up.)
  3. You had better consult a doctor.
  4. You had better go home at once.

(ie: I advise you to go home)



  1. It is advisable for you to stay in the hostel.
  2. It is desirable that you don’t borrow from him.
  3. I don’t think you should depend on him
  4. I would advise you to reserve ticket now.
  5. I would advise you to take medicine
  6. I think you should lock the door.
  7. I think you should accept that job.
  8. It is desirable that you bring your food with you.
  9. I would advise you to stop smoking
  10. I think you don’t miss the last bus.


  1. You had better stay in the hostel
  2. You had better not borrow from him
  3. You had better not depend on him
  4. You had better reserve the ticket now
  5. You had better take medicine
  6. You had better lock the door
  7. You had better accept that job.
  8. You had better bring your food with you
  9. You had better stop smoking
  10. You had better not miss the last bus


  1. Before


  • before =  previous to the time when.

Eg:  1.  Take your medicine before you go to bed

  1. He had stopped writing before I entered the room
  2. He had met her three months before.
  3. Have you ever been here before ?
  4. We will start before 9 am (preposition)
  5. ‘A’ is used before a consonant  (place)
  6. ‘An’ is used before a vowel (place)


  1. He cut down the tree. Then he went home
  2. Formers plough the fields. Then they sow their seeds
  3. We enter a temple. We should remove our slippers
  4. The teacher finished the lesson. Then he went to the staff room.
  5. Don’t count your chickens. They are not hatched.


  1. He had cut down the tree before he went home
  2. Farmers plough the fields before they sow their seeds
  3. We should remove our slippers before we enter a temple
  4. The teacher had finished the lesson before he went to the staff room.
  5. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.


  1. After


  • After  =  later in time
  • After =  later

Eg:   They started the work on Monday and finished four days later.

They started the work on Monday and finished after four days.

  • After is followed by a noun or pronoun or gerund.
  • If we do not use a noun or pronoun or gerund, we have to use


Eg:  They played football and bathed afterwards.

After playing football, they bathed (after + gerund)

Combine using after

  1. The bell rang. Then the pupils went out.
  2. We got freedom. Then we drafted a new constitution
  3. He cleaned his teeth. He took his breakfast
  4. The fisherman collected the net. They went to the sea.
  5. The fire got under control. The fire engine arrived.

Answers :

  1. The pupils went out after the bell had rung
  2. We drafted a new constitution after we got freedom
  3. He took his breakfast after he had cleaned his teeth
  4. The fisherman went to the sea after they had collected the nets.
  5. The fire got under control after the fire engine had arrived.


  1. Wish


  • Wish +  a clause with past tense.

Eg:  I wish I were rich

( in imaginery condition were is used. Now a days,

we use was also)

I wish I was rich

  • Past tenses are used with wish to express. Present and future meaning

Eg:  I wish I spoke English like an English man.

Rewrite using wish

  1. I was careless in spending the money
  2. The wells have dried up.
  3. I am to stay at home all day
  4. You will not listen to good advice
  5. The bus was crowded
  6. I have undertaken a task
  7. They missed the first chance
  8. I did not revise the lessons well.
  9. You smoke too much
  10. She was here listening to every word


  1. I wish I had not been careless in spending the money
  2. I wish the wells had not dried up
  3. I wish I were not to stay at home all day
  4. I wish you would listen to good advice
  5. I wish the bus had not been crowded
  6. I wish I had not undertaken a task
  7. They wish they had not missed the first chance
  8. I wish I had revised the lessons well
  9. I wish you did not smoke so much
  10. I wish she were not here listening to every word.


  1. It is time


  • It’s time can be followed by an infinitive

Eg:   1.  It’s time to arrest the film star

  1. It’s time for him to complete his assignment.
  2. It’s time for him to go to office
  3. It’s time to change this car
  • It is time + clause with past tense show present or future meaning

Eg:  1.  I am getting tired. It’s time we went home.

  1. It is time you joined a factory
  2. It’s time you white washed your apartment.

Begin with it is time

  1. The children should go to bed.
  2. You start learning seriously
  3. He should take his turn
  4. The students must be in the school now
  5. We repair this house


  1. It is time the children went to bed
  2. It is time you started learning seriously.
  3. It is time he took his turn
  4. It is time the students were in the school now
  5. It is time we repaired this house


  1. Mind


  • Mind is used to express a polite request.
  • Mind + gerund
  • Gerund = verbal noun ( – ing form )
  • Mind =  CjvS-s¸-Sm-Xn-cn-¡pI / hnjaw tXm¶pI

Eg:   1.  Do you mind coming tomorrow ?

  1.   I don’t mind coming  (h-cp-¶-Xn\v F\n¡v bmsXmcp aSnbpw CÃ)
  2. Do you mind my sitting here ?
  3.    No, I don’t mind your sitting here.
  4.   Would you mind waiting a little ?




























Read also