29 Nov

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് 3

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്  3

ചൂര്യയി ചന്ദ്രന്‍

സഹകരണ മേഖലയിലെ നിയമനത്തിന് റിക്രൂട്ടിംഗ് ബോര്‍ഡ് നടത്തുന്ന പരീക്ഷക്ക് ആവശ്യമായ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് പേപ്പര്‍ ആണ് ഈ പംക്തിയില്‍ വരുന്നത്. പി.എസ്.സിയുടെ വിവിധ പരീക്ഷകള്‍ക്ക് തയ്യാറെടുക്കുന്നവര്‍ക്കും വിവിധ ക്ലാസ്സുകളില്‍ പഠിക്കുന്ന കുട്ടികളെ സഹായിക്കുന്ന രക്ഷിതാക്കള്‍ക്കും ഈ പംക്തി പ്രയോജനപ്പെടും.

 

Conditionals ( If clauses )

  • A conditional sentence has two parts : the conditional clause ( if clause ) and the main clause.

If you practise well,               you will win

PROTASIS.                                   APODOSIS

Conditional clause                    main clause

If clause.                                      Consequence

Condition                                   result

വ്യവസ്ഥ / സങ്കല്പം      അതിന്റെ ഫലം
(നടക്കാം നടക്കാതിരിക്കാം)

There are many types of conditional sentences

  • But, here, we discuss three main types.

I Type , II Type , III Type.

I   Type  If Clause / Real condition

It is also called Probable Condition or likely condition Sequence of tenses

used in these 3 types is to be noted or understood.

Sequence of tenses used in the First Type 

if+ simple present , in M.C modal present 

write / writes           will   + V1

count / counts          shall + V1

come / comes          can.   + V1

go / goes.                 may  + V1

must + V1

  1. If you eat a lot of food you will grow
  2. If you do exercise , you will be healthy
  3. If you run fast , you will win the race
  4. If you see him , you must say good morning
  5. If you plant trees, you can save the earth.
  6. If you make noise , you will disturb
  7. If you climb up the wall , you will fall down
  8. If you buy an ice cream , you can eat
  9. If you tickle me , I will tickle
  10. If you do not work hard , you won’t get high marks.
  11. If she agrees , I will inform
  12. If you take rest , your health will improve
  13. If the rain stops , we must not postpone the match.
  14. If he has enough money , he can buy that plot.
  15. If the police do not give permission , the meeting will not be held.

Will not hold ( active ) ; will not be held ( passive )

  1. If you do not stop smoking , you won’t get better( won’t = will not )
  2. If she does not invite me , I won’t attend the party.
  3. If you change your habits , it will be better for you.
  4. If eight book cost 108 , how much will one book cost ?
  5. If something falls in the eye , we must not rub the eye.
  6. If today is Monday the 7th can you think of a shortcut to find the date next Monday ?
  7. If you want , I will train you.
  8. If we heat water to 100°C, it will boil
  9. If we boil water, it will turn into steam.
  10. If we cool steam, it will turn back to water.
  11. If we cool a piece of iron , it will contract.
  12. If we heat a piece of iron, it will expand.

Note :

  1. To express a possible future action or situation the simple present is used in the if clause and a modal auxiliary in the main clause.
  2. If clause can be placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.
  3. If ‘if clause comes’ at the beginning, it ends with a coma.
  4. If ‘if clause’ comes at the end, coma is to be omitted.
  5. Will can be used in the ‘ if clause ‘ with the meaning of willingness (k-¶-²-X) or insistence (\nÀ_-Ôw) or readyness or preparedness.

II   Type If clause ( unreal condition )

  • It is also called unlikely condition or improbable condition or imaginary condition
  • 2nd Type often expresses a hypothetical condition ( what is contrary to present fact).

Sequence of tenses in the Second Type 

if+ simple past , in M.C modal past 

                              V2                                 would + V1

                        wrote                                   could  + V1

                      counted                                  might  + VI

                        came                                      had to  +. V1

                        went

Generally, would is used should is omitted.

  1. If I were younger, how much happier I could be !
  2. If I were a smaller tree, I would be left
  3. If I were taller, I could touch the roof.
  4. If I were thinner, I could run
  5. If I were larger, I couldn’t walk
  6. If I were cleverer, I would defeat
  7. If I were older, I would teach you.
  8. If it rained, we would postpone the match.
  9. If I had time, I could rewrite
  10. If we won the match, we would all
  11. What would you do if you had no money?
  12. If I were a fish , the cat would eat me.
  13. If the manager were here, he would help
  14. If wishes were horses , beggars might
  15. What would you do if I did not give the money?
  16. If he were to come here, he would meet
  17. If you attended the function, he would be
  18. If he came here, I would advise

III    Type if clause (impossible condition)

  • It is a theoretical condition
  • It is.

Sequence of tenses in the Third Type

if+ past perfect , in M.C conditional perfect 

had+ V3                                   would have + P.P

had written.                            should have + P.P

had counted                             could have  + P.P

had come                               might have + P.P

had gone                               ought to have + P.P

P.P = past participle (V3)

Eg:. 1) If he had come here yesterday, I could have discussed the matter

(= did not come).                           (= did not discuss)

വന്നിരുന്നുവെങ്കില്‍ ചര്‍ച്ച ചെയ്യാമായിരുന്നു (വന്നിട്ടുമില്ല, ചര്‍ച്ച ചെയ്തിട്ടുമില്ല)

2)  If you had helped him , he would have completed the work.

3)  If I had not fallen down , I would have won

4)  If Arun had practised before, he would have been the champion

5)  If I had gone to the stadium, I could have met him

6)  If he had known about it, he would have told us

7)  If you had informed me, I would not have visited the place.

8)  If I had prepared well, I would have performed well in the stage.

9)  If Hari had listened to me, he might have solved it.

10) If John had obeyed his father, he would not have been punished.

11) Would you have gone if you’d been invited?

12) If I hadn’t arrived, they wouldn’t have known what to do?

                                                       Revision

Real condition ( I Type )

First type if, simple present – modal present

               (memorise)

Unreal condition ( II Type )

Second type if, simple past –  modal past

 (memorise)

Impossible condition (III Type)

Third type if, past perfect –  five P.P

 (memorise)

Five P.P    =   Conditional perfect  =  would have P.P

should have P.P

could have   P.P

might have   P.P

(P.P = past participle)                   ought to have P.P

Note: (1)  Instead of  ‘if ‘ unless is used  unless = if not

Eg: 1)  Unless he expresses regret, he will not be allowed to enter the class ( I Type )

Will not allow (active) will not be allowed (passive)

If he does not express regret, he will not be allowed to enter the class.

2)  Unless you change your habits, you will not achieve the goal. (I Type)

If you do not change your habits you will not achieve the goal

3)  If you do not allow me, I will not do this.  Unless you allow me, I will not do

this

4)  If I don’t hurry, I’ll miss my bus

Unless I hurry, I’ll miss my bus.

(2)  Omission of  it

  • ‘If’ can be omitted, if we inverse subject and verb ie: V+S pattern instead of S+V

Eg: 1. If I were rich, I will help the poor

Were       I      rich, I will help the poor

(verb) (subject)

  1. If I had seen her, I should have been shocked

Had         I       seen her, I should have been shocked

(verb) (subject)

Model Questions

  • Supply the correct tense form of the verb in brackets
  1. If my car (come) in time, I should not have been
  2. If she were older, she (have) more sense
  3. You (kill) yourself if you work as hard as that
  4. If they had waited, they (find) me
  5. She will do well if she (go) to the university
  6. We (enjoy) the play better if it had not been long
  7. The dog (bit) you if it had not been tied
  8. I should have come yesterday if I (have) nothing to do
  9. I would knit another sweater if I (have) more wool.
  10. I shouldn’t do that if I (be) you.

(be= is, was, are, were, am)

  1. B) From Old Questions

Choose the correct tense form from the given four answers.

  1. I would hurry up if I ……you
    1. were b) was   c) is    d) am
  2. If you had telephoned, I ….. to your house.
    1. would have come
    2. would come
    3. shall come
    4. will come.
  3. If I were you , I …… that old scooter
    1. will not buy
    2. wouldn’t buy
    3. shall not buy
    4. didn’t buy
  4. If you had locked the car, the bag….
    1. will not have been stolen
    2. cannot have been stolen
    3. maynot have been stolen
    4. wouldn’t have been stolen
  5. If the workmen had not been tired they……… the work
    1. would have completed
    2. would complete
    3. will complete
      1. will have completed
      1. You will not pass unless….
        1. you do not work hard
        2. you work hard
        3. you will work hard
        4. you will not work hard
      2. If he knew your address, we …… to you
        1. would write
        2. will write
        3. would have written
        4. would have been writing
      3. If you invited me, I ……..
        1. would come
        2. will come
        3. would have come
        4. would be coming
      4. If he had challenged me, I…… him a lesson.
        1. would have taught
        2. would teach
        3. will teach
        4. would have been taught.
      5. If you had contested, you…… won the election.
        1. would
        2. will
        3. will have
        4. would have
      6. If she agrees, I…… Inform you.
        1. will
        2. would
        3. would have to
        4. should
      7. If you helped me,……..
        1. I will help you
        2. I should have helped you
        3. I would help you.
        4. I could help you
      8. He would not have failed if he….
        1. worked hard
        2. had worked hard
        3. was working hard
        4. would work hard
      9. If he had consulted a doctor,……
        1. his disease would have cured.
        2. he would have been cured.
        3. The doctor would cure the disease
        4. He would cure the disease
      10. If you had taken rest, your health….
        1. would improve
        2. will improve
        3. would have improved
        4. would be improving
          1. …….. come to rescue , I would have been killed by the bandits
            1. If he did not
            2. Had he not
            3. If he would not
            4. He having not.
        5. ANSWERS 
          • (1)   had come      (2)  would have                 (3)  will kill     (4)  would have found

          (5)   goes              (6)  would have enjoyed   (7)  would have bitten

          (8)   had  had        (9)  had      (10)  were

           

          (B)       1  (a)        2   (a)      3  (b)        4   (d)    5  (a)    6  (b)      7  (a)      8  (a)      9  (a)

          10 (d)      11  (a)     12 (c)       13  (b)     14  (b)   15 (c)   16 (b)

           

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