12 May

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് 5

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് 5


ചൂര്യയി ചന്ദ്രന്‍

(2020 ഡിസംബര്‍ ലക്കം)

 

Tense Forms – Active and Passive

In Chapter 4, we have dealt with 12 tense forms and their uses. Now, we are going to see the peculiar nature of English tense forms which is entirely different from the usage of Malayalam tense.
1. അപ്പം തിന്നു (വായ ഇല്ലാത്ത അപ്പം എങ്ങിനെ തിന്നു ? ആരെ തിന്നു ? )
2. പല്ല് തേച്ചു. (കയ്യില്ലാത്ത പല്ല് എങ്ങിനെ തേച്ചു ?)
3. സൈക്കിള്‍ ഓടിച്ചു (സൈക്കിളിന് കയ്യും കാലുമില്ല പിന്നെ എങ്ങിനെയാണ് ഓടിച്ചത് ?)
ബ്രാക്കറ്റിലെ ചോദ്യങ്ങള്‍ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്‌കാരുടേതാണ്. ചോദ്യം ന്യായമാണ്. കാരണം :
They say : 1. Bread was eaten (അപ്പം തിന്നപ്പെട്ടു)
2. Teeth were cleaned (പല്ല് തേയ്ക്കപ്പെട്ടു)
3. Cycle was ridden (സൈക്കിള്‍ ഓടിക്കപ്പെട്ടു)
The three statements given above are in Passive Voice. In this case, English is not like Malayalam.
? Active and Passive forms of Tenses are given equal importance in English. We, Malayalees, generally use Active forms only. The usage of Passive forms is very very rare.
‘അപ്പം തിന്നു’ എന്നു നാം പറഞ്ഞാല്‍, ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്‌കാര്‍ കരുതുംപോലെയല്ല കാര്യം
അപ്പം അല്ല തിന്നത് ; ഞാനാണ് തിന്നത്
പല്ല് അല്ല തേച്ചത് ; ഞാനാണ് തേച്ചത്
സൈക്കിള്‍ അല്ല ഓടിച്ചത് ; ഞാനാണ് ഓടിച്ചത്
ഞാന്‍ understood ആണ് (മലയാളിക്ക്)
ഏത് പോലെ ?
Stand up എന്നു പറഞ്ഞാല്‍
Sit down You stand up (ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്‌കാരന്)
You sit down എന്നാണ്
‘You’ ; understood എന്നത് പോലെ
അപ്പം തിന്നപ്പെട്ടു എന്ന് മലയാളി പറയാറില്ല
പല്ല് തേക്കപ്പെട്ടു പറയേണ്ടതില്ല
സൈക്കിള്‍ ഓടിക്കപ്പെട്ടു
ie : we generally do not use passive forms
In short, we, Malayalees, should know the passive forms of the 12 tense forms, we have learned in the 4th chapter
? Active and Passive are the two sides of the same coin (same tense)

Pre simple (active)            write ,writes                                is written, are written, am written                                        Pre. simple  (passive)

Pre. con    (active)              is writing, are writing, am writing      is being written, are being + P.P, am being + P.P      Pre. con (passive)

 

Pre perfect (active)        Has written, Have written                        has been written , have been + P.P                                pre. per. (passive)

 

pre per.con. (active)      has been writing, have been +ing

 

Past simple (active)     wrote                                    was written were written                                      past simple (passive)

past. con.(active)       was writing , were writing            was being written were being +P.P                      past con. (passive)

past. per. (active)         had written                had been written                      past perfect (passive)

past. per. con. (active)     had been writing            no passive                           past per.con. (passive)

fut. simple (active)     will write , shall write             will be written, shall be +p.p        fut. per. (passive)

fut.con will be writing shall + ing                                            no passive                           fut.con (passive)

fut. per. (active                  will have written , shall have + pp               will have been written , shall have been written    fut. per. (passive)

fut per.con. (active)             will have been writing shall have been writing       no passive          fut. per. conti.

N.B: Four tense forms have no passive
Usages of Active & Passive Forms
If a subject is the actor of the verb (or door of the verb). its verb form must be Active.
If the subject is the sufferer of the verb, its verb form must be Passive.
Eg: 1. He drives a car
2. Vipin managed the company
3. Hari is preparing a special curry
4. Vijayi has posted it
He, Vipin, Hari, Vijayi are doers.
So active forms of verbs like drives, managed, is preparing, has posted are used.
When sufferers (objects of the active verbs) come in the place of subjects, the verbs are in passive forms.
Eg. 1, A car is driven
2. The company was managed
3. A special curry is being prepared
4. It has been posted
To change Active into Passive, firstly we must identify S, V and O.
Dasan gave her a computer (active)
I step (to find out S)
Who + gave ? = subject = Dasan
[if there is no answer, ask :
What + gave ? = No answer
II step (to find out O)
gave + what ? = a computer (O)
gave + whom ? = her (O)
gave + for whom ? = no answer
gave + to whom ? = no answer
Now, we can change active into passive in two ways because there are two objects :
A) She was given a computer
B) A computer was given to her
was given is the passive form of gave.
N.B : The first thing you want to do is to memorise 12 active forms and their 8 passive forms. There lies your success.
Exercise :
1. Byden will beat Trump [will be beaten]
Trump will be beaten by Byden (passive)
2. I see him every day [is/are/am + seen]
He is seen by me every day (passive)
(him in the place of object
He in the place of subject)
I in the place of subject
Me in the place of object )
3. I gave a book to him
A) He was given a book by me (passive)
B) A book was given to him by me (passive)
4. I shall see him tomorrow
He will be seen by me tomorrow
5. He had seen the lion before it saw him.
He had seen the lion ? it saw him
The lion had been seen by him ? he was seen by it.
Ans: The lion had been seen by him before he was seen by it
6. Our children have never seen camels
Camels have never been seen by our children
7. All of us had seen him earlier
He had been seen by all of us earlier
8. I will teach him a lesson
He shall be taught a lesson by me
9. I shall have finished the work by tomorrow evening
The work will have been finished by me
by tomorrow evening (നാളെ വൈകുന്നരം ആകുമ്പോഴേക്കും)

10. They quickly opened the box
The box was quickly opened by them.
Passive of Modals
Can open – can be opened
Could write – could be written
Should write – should be written
May write – may be written
Used to write – used to be written
Ought to write – ought to be written
Would write – would be written
Need not write – need not be written
Dare not write – dare not be written
Passive of Infinitives
To write – to be written
To have written – to have been written
Passive of Present participle
writing – being written
Bringing – being brought
Eating – being eaten
Exercise
1. He can help us
We can be helped by him
2. I cannot help her
She cannot be helped by me
3. They may help us
We may be helped by them
4. He would never have helped you
You would never have been helped by him
5. You ought to help her
She ought to be helped by you
6. Capitalists must help the poor
The poor must be helped by the capitalists
7. He is to report it
It is to be reported by him

8. He has to inform us
We have to be informed by him
9. He will have to stop drinking
Drinking will have to be stopped by him
10. He will have to complete the work by Sunday
The work will have to be completed by Sunday
11. Students are to write the answers on both sides of the paper
Are to write what ? = the answers (object)
Are to write (active)
Are to be written (passive)
The answers are to be written on both sides of the paper.
Passive of Imperative Sentences
1. Open your book (active)
Open (active) is opened
Are opened Passive
Am opened
In imperative sentences This passive form is not used.

Let your book be opened. (Passive)

2. Shut the door
Let the door be shut
3. Summon him
Let him be summoned
4. Summon all the servants
Let all the servants be summoned
5. Arrest him
Let him be arrested
6. Do not arrest him
Let not him be arrested
7. Don’t open the door
Let not the door be opened
8. Advertise the post
Let the post be advertised
9. Prepare yourself for the worst
Be prepared for the worst
Passive of Interrogative Sentences
Active : Why did he ask such a question ? (active)
Why [did] he [ask] such a question ?
Q.W a.v. s. m.v O
I step – Change the Question into a statement :
Why he did ask such a question.

= Why he asked such a question (statement)
S V
Passive of asked is was asked / were asked.
II step – Change the statement into passive :
Why such a question was asked by him
S V
III step – Change the statement into Question :
Passive : Why (was) such a question (asked)
V S
by him ?
In statement S + V is the pattern
In Question V + S is the pattern
In statement, please note, there is no question mark.
In Question, there is a question mark
Before question mark, there should be : V + S
It is called inversion of Subject and Verb.
Exercise : Why (did) he (take) her book ?
Did + take = took (active)
Was taken / were taken (passive)
Why (was) her book (taken) by him ?
2. (Haven’t) you (posted) the letter yet ?
Haven’t posted (active)
Haven’t been posted (passive)
(Hasn’t) the letter (been posted) yet by you ?
The letter (subject – singular – so has is used)
3. Which of you saw him ?
Saw (active) was seen/were seen (passive)
Him (object) which of you (subject)
Note : In this question inversion of S and V is not kept. A special question.
By which of you (was) he (seen) ?
= Which of you was he seen by ?
4. (Can) he (break) this bar ?
Can break (active)
Can be broken (passive)
(Can) this bar (be broken) by him ?
5. Who (teaches) you grammar ?
Note : Who (subject)
Teaches (V) Here, no inversion of S and V is kept.
Is taught
Are taught passive form
Am taught
by + who = by whom
Step I :
(A) By whom (was) grammar (taught) to you ?
(B) By whom were you taught grammar ?
Step II :
(A) Whom was grammar taught to you by ?
(B) Whom were you taught grammar by ?
NB : Preposition by comes last.
6. Who (will catch) the crow ?
Will catch (active)
Will be caught (passive)
Who (subject) ; whom (object)
By whom (will) the crow (be caught) ?
= Whom will the crow be caught by ?
7. Did you see him ?
Did + see = saw (active)
Was seen / were seen (passive)
(Was) he (seen) by you ?
8. (Did) you (see) the thief ?
(Was) the thief (seen) by you ?
9. (Does) he (love) her ?
Does + love = loves (active)
Am loved / is loved / are loved (passive)
(Is) she (loved) by him ?
10. Who teaches grammar ?
Whom (was) grammar (taught) by ?

11. (Has) anybody (answered) your question ?
Object your question
(Has) your question (been answered) ?
12. What questions (did) they (set) ?
What question object
Did + set = set (active) ; was set (passive)
What questions were set by them
(Here, what questions comes as subject)

Previous Questions

1. Our college day ………….. by M.T. Vasudevan Nair last week
(a) Has inaugurated (b) had inaugurated
(c) was inaugurated (d) was being inaugurated
Our college day is the subject. It is not the doer of the verb. So a passive form is to be selected. (C) and (d) are passive forms. Out of these two, (c) is correct.
2. ‘I ate a banana’. is the active form of
(a) I had been eaten a banana
(b) I was eaten by a banana
(c) A banana has eaten by me
(d) A banana was eaten by me.
Ate (active) ; was eaten / were eaten (passive)
(b) and (d) contain the correct passive form.
In (d) A banana is the subject and it is not a doer. So was eaten is correct.
3. Somebody pasted the poster on the wall ( change into passive )
The poster was pasted on the ball.
4. Mahatma Gandhi…….in 1948
(a) Is killed
(b) Has been killed
(c) Was killed
(d) Had been killed
The subject Mahatma Gandhi is the sufferer. So passive verb is needed. Here all verbs are passive
1948 is a particular point in the past and a single action.
So was killed [ active – killed ] is correct.
5. The picture ____ on the wall [ Ans: (a) ]
(a) was hung (b) was changed
(c) was being hanged (d) had been changed
past tense of hanging a picture is hung not hanged.
Hang – hanged – hanged
Hang – hung – hung
6. ‘ I was given a book ‘ is the passive form of : [ ans : (b) ]
(a) Someone gives me a book
(b) Someone gave me a book
(c) Someone is giving me a book
(d) Someone give me a break
(passive) was given ; (active) gave
7. ‘Someone stole my watch’ is the active form of ……………..
(a) My watch is stolen (b) My watch was stolen
(c) My watch has been stolen (d) My watch had been stolen
stole (active) ; was stolen (passive)
Ans : (b)
8. The passive form of ‘He issued the orders’ is
(a) He was issued the orders (b) The orders were issued by him
(c) The orders was issued by him (d) He had been issued the orders.
[ issued (active) ; was issued / were issued (passive) ]
Ans : (b)
9. ‘He hurt his leg in an accident’ is the active form of
(a) His leg hurt in an accident
(b) His leg was hurt in an accident
(c) An accident was hurt his leg
(d) His leg had been hurt in an accident.
Hurt (active) ; was hurt (passive)
Ans : (b)
10. ‘I am reading a book’ is the active of
(a) I am read a book
(b) A book was being read by me
(c) A book is being read by me
(d) A book has been read by me
am reading (active) : am being read / are being read / is being read (passive)
Ans : (c)
11. I am using my pen (change to passive)
(a) My pen is being used
(b) My pen is using
(c) My pen is being used by me
(d) My pen being used
am using (active) ; is being used (passive)
Ans : (c)
12. ‘People all over the world speak English’ is the active voice of
(a) English has been spoken all over the world
(b) People all over the world are spoken by English
(c) People are spoken all over the English world
(d) English is spoken all over the world
Speak (active) ; is spoken / are spoken / am spoken (passive)
Ans : (d)
13. The passive voice of the sentence ‘someone has locked the room’
(a) The room is being locked
(b) The room has been locked by someone
(c) The room is locked
(d) The room locked
has locked (active) ; has been locked (passive)
Ans : (b)
14. The match ……………… this morning
(a) was playing (b) is being played
(c) is playing (d) playing
The match (subject). It is not a doer. It is the sufferer. So a passive verb.
Ans : is being played
15. ‘People always admire this portrait’ is the active form of :
(a) This portrait was always admired
(b) This portrait admired always by people
(c) This portrait has been always admired
(d) This portrait is always admired
Admire (active) ; is admired (passive)
Ans : (d)
16. ‘They make a book of paper’ is the active form of
(a) Book is being made of paper
(b) A book of paper was made by them
(c) A book of paper is made by them
(d) A book is made
Make (active) ; is made (passive)
Ans : (c)
17. The news surprised everyone. Change into Passive Voice.
(a) Everyone has been surprised by the news
(b) Everyone is surprised by the news
(c) Everyone was surprised by the news
(d) None of these
Surprised (active) ; was surprised (passive)
Ans : (c)
18. Is the doctor examining the patient ?
Is examining (active) is being examined (passive)
(Is) the patient (being examined) by the doctor ?
19. The reception committee has made all the arrangements
Has made (active) ; has been made (passive)
All the arrangements have been made by the reception committee.
20. Identify the sentence which is in Passive Voice.
(a) The boy is climbing the cliff
(b) They made him king
(c) They pointed the house red
(d) Alice was not much surprised at this
Ans : (d)
21. Somebody cleans the room every day
(a) The room was cleaned everyday
(b) The room has been cleaned everyday
(c) The room is cleaned everyday
(d) The room had been cleaned everyday
Cleans (active) ; is cleaned (passive)
Ans: (c)
22. ‘Let them build a hospital here’
(a) Let a hospital be build by them
(b) Let a hospital be built by them here
(c) Let a hospital be build by them here
(d) Let a hospital be built here by them
Ans: (d)
23. Choose the correct passive form :
(a) Let us be print the matter
(b) Lets be printed the matter
(c) Let the matter be printed
(d) Lets the matter be printed
Ans : (c)
24. They put off the meeting due to the inconvenience of the minister.
(a) The meeting is put off due to the …………….
(b) The meeting was put off due to ……………..
(c) The meeting is being put off due to ………………
(d) The meeting has been put off due to …………….
Put off (active) ; was put off (passive)
Ans : (b)
25. ‘Manners reveal true character’
Reveal (active) ; is revealed (passive)
True character is revealed by manners.
26. Stop
You are asked to stop
27. Work hard
You are advised to work hard
28. Stop the play
Let the play be stopped
29. Do not call the police
Let not the police be called
30. Obey traffic rules
Traffic rules should be obeyed
31. Please tell him to come here
Let him be told to come here.

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