(Direct and Indirect Speech)
2) Indirect Speech
change. It is given between quotation marks. The speech under quotation marks begins
with a capital letter.
eg: Introducing part
He said to me, “I do not believe you.”
Reporting Part Reported Part
He said to me
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Reporting Reporting Reporting
S V O
Corresponding Past Forms
is/are/am ………… was / were
has/have ………. Had
will be / shall be – would be / should be
shall bring – should bring
can go – could go
am going – was going
has done – had done
have done – had done
He says that he is not ready (Indirect)
So the Tense form ‘am not’ has no change
NB: After the reporting part, there is a comma. In the Reported Speech instead of comma the connector ‘that’ is used.
In the case of questions, instead of that, if or whether is used.
Rani will say that she is not ready.
So, am not has no change of tense. She + is not
Jonathan says that he is busy
Sheela says that she is fine.
Sheela said that she was fine.
Jonathan said that he was busy.
The students say that they had finished their work
You said that you were writing a letter
You told me that I was writing a letter.
Said to = told
I I person ____ change into Radha’s person (III person)
You II person ____ change into me’s person (I person)
Radha told me that she was right but I was wrong
Special changes in Tense Forms
He said that he had met his old teacher.
They said that they had worked hard for them.
He said that he had written him.
eg: He said, “In ancient India, there lived many rishis or scholars.”
He said that in ancient India there lived many rishis or scholars.
eg: He said, “If she invited me, I would attend the party.”
He said that if she invited him, he would attend the party.
eg: He explained, “when caesar entered, people bowed with respect.
He explained that when Caesar entered people bowed with respect.
Say Inform Maintain
Tell Remark A vow
State Observe Swear
Announce Proclaim Insist
Assert Propose Assure
Affirm Suggest Deny etc.
Request Implore Importune
Pray entreat Beseech etc.
Beg Plead with
Tell Command enjoin
Ask Direct Call upon
Order Bid Instruct etc.
Inquire Question etc.
I Structural Changes in Exclamatory Sentences
eg: 1) He said, “ what a wonderful sunset!”
[I Step : “ it is a very wonder sunset”]
II Step : He exclaimed that it was a very wonderful sunset
2) The giant said, “ How selfish I have been “
[I Step : “ I have been very selfish”]
II Step : The giant exclaimed that he had been very selfish.
3) She said, “ How fine the weather is !”
[ I Step : “ The weather is very fine”]
II Step : She exclaimed that the weather was very fine.
4) The tourist said, “ what a splendid building !”
[I Step : “ It is a splendid building”]
II Step : The tourist exclaimed that it was a splendid building
5) The children said, “How happy we are here!”
[I Step :”We are very happy here.”]
II Step : The children exclaimed with delight that they were very happy there.
He exclaimed with wonder what a wonderful sunset it was.
The giant cursed himself how selfish he had been.
She exclaimed with wonder how fine the weather was.
The tourist exclaimed what a splendid building that was.
The children exclaimed with delight how happy they were there.
II Structural changes in Imperative Sentences
( Requests, orders, advice, invitation, suggestions etc.)
eg: 1) He said to me, “carry my bag”.
He ordered me to carry his bag (Infinitive phrase)
2) She said to him, “please don’t abandon me !”
She requested him not to abandon her. (Infinitive phrase)
3) The teacher said to the students, “Learn this poem by heart”.
The teacher instructed the students to learn the poem by heart.
4) He cried, “O god, have mercy on me !”
He prayed god to have mercy on him. (Infinitive phrase)
5) The boy said to the lady, “please give me something to eat.”
The boy begged the lady to give him something to eat. (Infinitive phrase)
He wished her a happy birthday
He congratulated me.
He thanked me
He suggested that we should play chess.
She invited him to go to the film with her.
He suggested her consulting a lawyer
[He suggested that she should consult a lawyer]
III Structural changes in Questions
|Question word||Auxiliary verb||Subject||l main verb|
|7||Are||you||going||to the dinner ?|
I step : What you are looking for
II step (Reported speech) : She asked him what he was looking for
I step : Why you scolded me.
II step (Reported speech) : He asked me why I had scolded him.
I step : Why you are angry.
II step : Hari asked Sari why she was angry.
I step : You have solved the problem
II step : Sujatha asked her brother whether he had solved the problem.
I step: She saw him.
II step : Suresh asked Azeez whether she had seen him
I step : You are late.
II step : The manager asked her whether she was late.
I step : You are going to the dinner.
II step : My father asked me whether I was going to the dinner.
Questions beginning with auxiliary verbs are called Yes or No Questions.
He asked the little girl where she lived.
Meera greeted John and asked where he was going
Sheila angrily asked her mother where her purse was.
He asked what the time was.
He said sadly that he was undone.
The doctor told me to take the tablet before meals.
Leela said that she had written a letter.
He said, “Is such a thing possible ?”
He said that he had to go the following week.
Midhun asked me if I enjoyed cricket.
He said that he had to go at once.
She exclaimed that she had lost her purse
She told Ahmed that she’d be late.
He said that he had passed the examination
Hari said that he had bought a pen.
He said that he was going out.
she said that she would be back the following week
He said that he had got his licence the previous Monday.
I asked him if he would marry me.
I told her that she looked nice
1 – d, 2 – a, 3 – d, 4 – b, 5 – c, 6 – c, 7 – b, 8 – a, 9 – c, 10 – a
Now changes to Then
This ,, That
These ,, Those
Here ,, There
Thus ,, So
Ago ,, Before
Today ,, That day
Tonight ,, That might
Tomorrow ,, The next day
Yesterday ,, The previous day (The day before)
Last night ,, The previous night (The night before)
Next week ,, The following week
Last week ,, The previous week
Just ,, Then