12 May

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്

Degrees of comparison

(Comparison of Adjectives)

ചൂര്യയി ചന്ദ്രന്‍

(2021 മാര്‍ച്ച് ലക്കം)

The degrees of comparison are three in number

  1. The Positive 2.The Comparative and                           3. The Superlative
  • The basic form of the adjective is said to be in the positive degree

Eg: big, strong, small, and beautiful

  • The positive denotes the simple quality as long ribbon/beautiful flower

Eg: 1) The blue ribbon is long.

  • The Red rose is
  • The comparative denotes a higher degree of the quality, as, longer ribbon/ more beautiful
  • The comparative is used when two things of the same class are compared.

Eg: 1 The Blue ribbon is longer than the yellow one.

2 The Red rose is more beautiful than the white rose.

  • The Superlative denotes the highest degree of the quality.
  • The superlative is used when one thing is compared with all other things of the same class.
  • The is used before the superlative.

Eg: 1. Hari is the smallest boy in the class.

  1. This isthe most famous school in this town.

3.Ravi is the best student of all the boys in his class.

4.Ravi is one of the best students in his class.

5.This is the oldest tree in the garden.

  1. Positive degree
  • Mary is a tall “Tall” – talking of only one person
  1. 2. Comparative Degree
  • Moly is taller than Mary. “Taller” – comparison between two people
  1. 3. Superlative Degree
  • Sarah is the tallest girl in the class. Tallest – comparison of more than two people
  • When two persons or objects are equal in respect of some quality, the comparison is brought out using as …..as

First Type:

Eg: 1. Rex is as tall as Tom.

  1. I am as strong as he
  2. Apples are as cheap as oranges.
  3. Kannur is as clean as Kozhikode.
  4. Boys are as intelligent as girls.

i.e.   1) Rex and Tom are equal in height

2) I and he are equal in strength.

3) Apples and oranges are equally cheap.

When the quality of two persons of things is not of the same degree, the sentences becomes negative. Then we use not + so…. as

 

Second Type

Eg: 1. Rex is not so tall as Tom.

  1. I am not so strong as he
  2. Apples are not so cheap as oranges
  3. Kannur is not so clean as Kozhikode

5.Boys are not so intelligent as girls.

Note: First type examples cannot be changed to comparative degree.

Second Type can be changed to comparative degree.

The following sentences are the equivalent comparative of the second type.

  1. Tom is taller than
  2. He is stronger than
  3. Oranges are cheaper than
  4. Kozhikode is cleaner than
  5. Girls are more intelligent than boys.

Note :1st type examples can not  be changed the comparative degree .

2nd type can be changed to comparative degree  .  The following sentences are  the equivalent comparative of the 2nd type.

Comparative with  ‘the’

Comparative without ‘ than’

Eg: 1. which is the larger of the two horses?

  1. This is the safer of the two ways.
  2. Of his two sons Charlie is the more Intelligent.
  3. Which of the two boys is the cleverer?
  4. Our team is the stronger of the two.

Note: In the above examples, the adjective is not followed by then. Generally superlative form is preceded by ‘ the’. Here, comparative form /is preceded by the.

Comparative without ‘the’ and ‘ than’

  1. My grandmother looks healthier these days.
  2. My health is better now.
  3. Things are getting from bad to worse in the border.
  4. We hope to have more rain this year.
  5. He ignored his elder brother’s advice.

No Superlative form. (Only positive and comparative forms)

  1. He is not so generous as his brother is. He is generous. But his brother is more generous.

Comparative: His brother is more generous than  he (is)

  1. The sword is not so mighty as the pen. I.e. The pen is mightier.

Comparative: The pen is mightier than the sword.

  1. Gold is not so useful as iron. i.e. iron is more useful.

Comparative: Iron is more useful than gold.

4.It is not so easy to practise as to preach.

i.e. To preach is easier.

Comparative: It is easier to preach than to practise.

5.You do not know him so well as I do.

i.e. I know him  better.

Comparative: I know him better than you do.

  1. The president is not much intelligent as the secretary i.e. The secretary is more intelligent

comparative :The secretary is more intelligent than  the president.

7.It is not so good to beg as to starve

i.e.: To starve is better

Comparative: It is better to starve than beg.

  1. A foolish friend is not so good as a wise enemy.

i.e. A wise enemy is better.

Comparative: A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.

  1. Precept is not so important as practise.

i.e. Practice is more important.

Comparative: Practise is more important than precept.

  1. My computer is not so costly as yours.

I.e. . Your computer is costlier comparative: YourComputer is costlier than mine.

Superlative (The only one)

  1. Of all things in the world light travels fastest.

Positive: Nothing else travels so fast as light.

Comparative: Light travels faster than anything else.

  1. Paris is the most popular hotel in our town.

Positive:No other hotel is as popular as Paris in your town.

Comparative:Paris is more popular than any other hotel in our town.

  1. Henry is the cleverest boy in the class.

Positive: No other boy in the class is so clever as Henry.

Comparative: Henry is cleverer than all the other boys in the class.

Super (only one)

4.Abdullah is the strongest man in their team.

Positive : No one else is so strong as Abdullah.

Comparative :Abdallah is stronger than any  one in their team..

5.The elephant is the most useful of all animals.

Positive : No other animal is so useful as the elephant.

Comparative : The elephant is most useful than all other animals.

6.This is the most crowded part of our city.

Positive : No other part of our city is so crowded as this.

Comparative : This part of the city is more crowded than any other part.

7.Karayathil Narayana was the most eloquent speaker in Malabar.

Positive : No other speaker in Malabar was so eloquent as Karayathil Narayanan.

Comparative : Karayathil Narayanan was moreeloquent than any other speaker in Malabar.

8.The peacock is the most beautiful bird.

Positive: No other bird is so beautiful as peacock.

Comparative : Peacock is more beautiful than any other bird.

9.Everest is the highest peak in the world.

Positive: No other peak in the world is so high as Everest.

Comparative.: Everest is higher than any otherPeak in the world. This medicine is the most effective one.

Positive : No other medicine is so effective asthis medicine.

Comparative : This medicine is more effectivethan any other medicine.

 Superlative   (One among a few)

Rajiv Gandhi was one of the greatest Prime Ministers of India.

Note : One among so to make the same quality

Positive degree start with very few.

  • Very few Prime Ministers in India were so great as Rajiv Gandhi (positive)

Note: To make comparative degree:

greater than + most other  Prime Ministers

  • Rajiv Gandhi was greater than most other prime ministers of India.
  • Iron is one of the most useful metals.

Note. One among the same degree.

Positive : Very few metals are as useful as iron.

Comparative : Iron is more useful than most other metals..

Superlative ( One among many)

3.Kerala is one of the most thickly populated states in India.

Positive : Very few states in India are as thickly populated as Kerala

Comparative : Kerala is more thickly populated than most other states in India.

4.Indus Valley Civilisation is one of the oldest civilisations in the world.

Positive : Very few civilisations in the world areas old as the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Comparative : The Indus Valley Civilisation is older than most other civilisations.

5.Delhi is one of the hottest places in summer.

Comparative : Delhi is hotter / in summer than most other places.

Positive : Very few places in summer / are so that as Delhi.

Super (only one)

  1. Japan is one of the mosttechnically advanced countries in the world.

Comparative is Japan is more technically advanced than any other country.

Positive is very few countries in the world are sotechnically advanced as Japan.

  1. The USA is one of the strongest countries in the world.

Comparative is  The U.S.A is stronger than most other countries in these world.

Positive is very few countries in the world are so strong as the U S A

  1. Chennai is one of the biggest of Indian cities.

Comparative: Chennai is bigger than most other Indian cities.

Positive : very few Indian cities are so big as Chennai

 

Much – More-Most

Eg:  I knew much

I knew more than the others

I knew the most of all

Old -Older –Oldest (used with persons, personals and things)

Old elder eldest (used with persons only)

[Elder and eldest are used with nearest relations like father, sister, brotheretc.]

1.He is my elder brother.

2.She is my elder sister.

3.He is the eldest person in my family.

older is followed by than elder is not followed by than

  • He is the elder of the two brothers
  • He is the elder brother
  • He is the eldest doctor in the town.
  • He is the oldest doctor in the town
  • This is the eldest tree in the garden
  • This is the oldest tree in the garden

Formation of comparisons

Positive                                    comparatives              superlative

Small                           smaller                                    smallest

Short                            shortest                       shortest

Wet                             wetter                         wettest

Dry                              drier                            driest

Happy                          happier                      happiest

Noble                           nobler                         noblest

Deep                            deeper                        deepest

Old                              older                            oldest

Old                              elder                            eldest

Fat                               fatter                           fattest

Thin                             thinner                       thinnest

Little                            less                              least

Much                           more                           most

Many                           more                           most

Up                                upper                          uppermost

Out                              outer                           outermost

Out                              outer                            outmost

Far                               farther                         farthest

Far                               further                         furthest

Useful                          more useful                 most useful

Expensive                    more expensive         most expensive

Beautiful                     more beautiful            most beautiful

Famous                        more famous              most famous

Industrious                  more industrious      most industrious

Useful                          less useful                    least useful

Beautiful                     less beautiful                least beautiful

 

Irregular comparative

Bad         worse     worst

Ill           worse      worst

Will       worse      worst

Good     better     best

Well      better     best

Late     later         latest

Fore   former    foremost

Latin comparatives

Superior

Interior

Anterior

Prior                                                    all are followed by to instead of than

Posterior

Senior

Junior

 

The following adjectives do not admit of comparative or superlatives forms .

Unique

Universal

Tornal

Perfect

Round

Square

Final

Half

Harmless

Immoral

Infinite

Main

Past

Previous

Priceless

Singular

Supreme

Absolute

Chief

Complete

Considerably

Contemporary

Dead

Elderly

Empty

Entire

Favourite

Unanimous

Worth less

 

Previous questions

 

1) Rithwik is __________ of my two brothers.

a)clever                                    c) cleverer

b)the cleverer                         d) the clever                            Ans:(b)

2) Radhika is the ____ girl in the class.

  1. a) Intelligent c) most intelligent
  2. b) more intelligent d) very intelligent                   Ans: (c)

Note: ‘class ‘as a whole is considered. so superlative degree.

3) Delhi is one of the biggest cities in India means _______

  1. a) Delhi is the biggest city in India
  2. b) There are cities bigger than Delhi
  3. d) A few other cities in India are as big as Delhi Ans: (d)

Notes: Many biggest cities. Delhi is one among them

4) He is the ___ of the three brothers.

  1. a) richest c)rich

b)more rich                             d)richer                       Ans: (a)

Notes: of the two        —     richer

Of the three    —- richest

5)Ram is ____ than any other boy in the class.

a)bright                                   c)brightest

b)brighter                                d) None of these        Ans: (b)

Note: before than any other— comparative

  1. The programme began ___ than I expected .
  2. a) late c)later

b)latest                                    d)latter    Ans: (c )

  1. Ram and Syam are friends . The former is short , but the ____ is very stout.
  2. a) later c) latest
  3. b) latter d) last                  Ans: (b)

Notes : Opposite of former is latter.

  1. Spot the error :

Of the two(a)     /   Pens , the red   (b)/ one is (c)/  the best   (d)      Ans: (d)

Note : of the two ,comes comparative of the two pens, the red one is better (correct)

9) Monkeys are ____learners than elephants.

  1. a) faster c) more fast
  2. b) very fast d)most fast Ans: (a)

 

10.This examinations is ____ than the other examinations

  1. a) more easy c) more difficult
  2. b) difficult d) more easier      Ans:  (c)

Notes :The answer should be a comparative —–more difficult.

11.Ajith is ___ than strong

  1. a) wiser c)wisest

b)more wise                            d)most wiser    Ans ( b)

Notes : Ajith ‘s two  qualities strong and wise . when compare the   two  qualities of the same person is compared , or is note used more+ position should be used

  1. There is – money in the purse it is empty .

a) little c) few

b) a little d) a few         Ans: (a)

Notes: it is empty shows that there is no money at all. “A little “ = some ,” little “=  no  money ,

 

13.It has been the ____ day in Delhi for 25 years .

a) hot b) much hot, c)hotter                       d)hottest                      Ans : (d )

14.Dev is ____ than  Ravi

a) old c)elder

b) more old d)older Ans: (d)

Notes: Two persons  Dev and Ravi. So comparative older is correct . Elder is not used before than

  1. This is the ____ book I have ever read.

a) worse c)worser

b) worst d)bad           Ans: (b)

Notes: bad —- worse—worst

  1. Mango is ____ than apple.

a) sweet c)sweeter

b) more sweet d)most sweet Ans: (C)

17.Light travels   __ than sound.

a)fast                                       c) fastest

b)faster                                   d)more fast                     Ans : (b )

18.The temple is ____ down the lane.

a) farther c) a little

b) little b)farthest Ans:  (a)

far —– farther —–farthest

far —– further —–furthest

19.Have you heard the ___ news?

a) late c)latest

d)later             d)lated             Ans: (c)

20.superlative form of ‘little’

a) littlest c) most little

b) least d)littiliest Ans :  (b)

little – less – least

little – lesser- least

  1. Among the four sisters, Leena is the

a) eldest c)older

b)elder                                    d)oldest                       Ans:  (a)

Read also
error: Content is protected !!