23 Sep

മത്സരത്തിലെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്

 

ചൂര്യയി ചന്ദ്രന്‍

Transformation of sentences
(Continuation of chapter-12)
According to meaning, sentences are of four types: 1) Assertive 2) Interrogative 3) Imperative and 4) Exclamatory
According to structure, sentences are of four kinds: 1) Simple 2) Compound 3) Complex and 4) Compound – Complex
Details are given in the last chapter.
Here, exercises to interchange the sentences are given.
To make a compound sentence:
Various kinds of conjunctions are used
(A) Cumulative Conjunctions:
and, also¸both…and, as well as¸not only…. but also etc.

(B) Adversitive Conjunctions:
but, still, yet, nevertheless, only, however, etc.

(C) Alternative Conjunctions:
Or, otherwise, else, either…or, neither… nor, etc.

(D) Illative Conjunctions:
So, and so, for, then, therefore, etc.
To make a complex sentence:
(1) Conjunctions like although, though, if, even if, in case, because, as, as if, as though, in that, when, since, till, where, unless, that, whether, whereas, etc. are used.

(2) Relative pronouns like which, that, who, whom, whose, where, when etc. are used.

Simple sentence into Compound sentence
1. Switching off the light, she went to bed.
2. By his rude behaviour, he antagonised all his fellow workers.
3. Besides being stupid, he is also insolent.
4. He sat in a corner, eating his cake.
5. On account of his foolishness, he had to suffer much.
6. Notwithstanding his great strength, he is very gentle in his manners.
7. He dictates notes too fast for me to take them down.
8. I followed his advice.
9. In spite of being rich, he is not contended.
10. For all his playfulness, he is not irresponsible.
11. He told a lot of lies in order to escape punishment.
12. To add to their troubles, their bank asked them to remit their loan dues.
13. In spite of having poor health, she is always cheerful.
14. In spite of being knowledgeable, she failed as a teacher.
15. By running very fast, you can catch the bus.
16. In addition to music, she teaches drawing.
17. At the sound of the bugle for dinner, I went below.
18. To add to his difficulties, his partner died.
19. In the event of its occurring again, you will be punished.
20. Make haste so as not to be late.
Answer
1. She switched off the light and went to bed.
2. His behavior was rude and so he antagonised his fellow workers.
3. He is not only stupid but also insolent.
4. He sat in a corner and ate his cake.
5. He was foolish and so he had to suffer much.
6. He is very strong, but in spite of this, he is very gentle in his manners.
7. He dictates notes very fast, so I cannot take them down.
8. He advised me and I followed him.
9. He is rich, but he is not contented.
10. He is playful, but not irresponsible.
11. He wanted to escape punishment and so he told a lot of lies.
12. Their bank asked them to remit the loan due and this added to their troubles.
13. Her health is poor, yet she is always cheerful.
14. She was very knowledgeable, but she failed as a teacher.
15. Run very fast and catch the bus.
16. She not only teaches music but also drawing.
17. The bugle sounded for dinner and I went below.
18. His partner died, and this added to his difficulties.
19. This must not occur again, or you will be dismissed.
20. Make haste, or else you will be late.

Simple Sentence into Complex Sentence
1. The manager is not likely to rebuke him.
2. Shehas been working very hard to win the scholarship.
3. I have decided to buy the building of my cousin.
4. On the departure of the inspector, our manager resumed his work.
5. Being very proud, he refused to apologize.
6. I followed his advice.
7. They agreed with my suggestion.
8. I don’t know anything about his intentions.
9. We must wait till his arrival.
10. Prof. Madhukar Rao, the head of English department, is on leave for a week.
11. All the books required by you are available in the library.
12. In spite of not being fully qualified, she got the job.
13. A lost moment is lost forever.
14. The news of his transfer to Delhi came to us as a sudden surprise.
15. The victim of the accident was a very old man.
16. The disciple often follows his master’s example.
17. He is a man of blameless life.
18. On hearing of her failure, she began to weep.
19. We eat to live.
20. He told a lot of lies in order to escape punishment.
Answer
1. It is not likely that the manager will rebuke him.
2. She has been working very hard in order that she may win the scholarship.
3. I have decided to buy the building which is owned by my cousin.
4. As soon as the visitor departed, our manager resumed his work.
5. As he was very proud, he refused to apologise.
6. I did as he advised me to do.
7. They agreed with what I had suggested.
8. I don’t know what he intends to do.
9. We must wait till he arrives.
10. Prof. Madhukar Rao, who isthe head of English department, is on leave for a week.
11. All the books which you required are in the library.
12. Although she was not fully qualified, she got the job.
13. A moment that is lost is lost forever.
14. The news that he had been transferred to Delhi came to us as a sudden surprise.
15. The victim of the accident was a man who was very old.
16. The disciple often follows the example which his master sets.
17. He is a man who leads a blameless life.
18. When she heard of her failure, she began to weep.
19. We eat so that we may live.
20. He wanted to escape punishment and so he told a lot of lies.

Two Simple sentences into Compound sentence
1. It is stranger than fiction. It is true.
2. He cannot hear the teacher. He is deaf.
3. You will have to play well. You will not win the match.
4. Aadhi is ambitious. Vipin is quite the reverse.
5. He is old. He is active.
6. Men may come. Men may go. I go on forever.
7. It is a familiar story. The author has told it in a touching manner.
8. He stole the cake. He ate it.
9. Abu has gone to Canada. Mammu also has gone to Canada.
10. He is an illiterate. He pretends to be highly educated.
11. Theysaw the uselessness of violence. Theychanged their policy.
12. Munshi isa well known scholar. He is elected president.
13. He is rich. He is unhappy.
14. He will come back. Do not go till then.
15. She ran fast. She wanted to come first in the race.
16. She is foolish. She is lazy.
17. He was ill. He remained at home.
18. Gandhiji was a political leader. He was an ascetic.
19. He cleaned the statue. He decorated it.
20. The train was crowded. It was unusual.
Answer
1. It is stranger than fiction, yet it is true.
2. He cannot hear the teacher for he is deaf.
3. You will have to play well, or you will not win the match.
4. Aadhi is ambitious whereas Vipin is quite the reverse.
5. He is old, yet he is active.
6. Men may come and men may go but I go on forever.
7. It is a familiar story, but the author has told it in a touching manner.
8. He stolethe cake and ate it.
9. Mammu as well as Abu has gone to Canada.
10. He is an illiterate, but pretends to be highly educated.
11. They saw the uselessness of violence, so theychanged their policy.
12. Munshi is a well known scholar, so he is elected president.
13. He is rich, yet unhappy.
14. Wait till he comes back.
15. She ran fast, for she wanted to come first in the race.
16. She is not only lazy but also foolish.
17. He remained at home, for he was ill.
18. Gandhiji was not only a political leader but also an ascetic.
19. He not only cleaned the statue but also decorated it.
20. The train was crowded and it was unsusal.

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Compound sentences into Simple sentences
1. Run all the way, or else you will be late.
2. He got back his stolen computer, and was delighted at his good luck.
3. He handed over this note and left the place.
4. He was very poor, and often suffered great hardships.
5. I did not attend the function, but everyone else did.
6. Respect others or others will not respect you.
7. He had knowledge but he could not earn money.
8. He was climbing up the stairs and he fell down.
9. The umpires found the light poor and decided to postpone thematch.
10. She is a Bengali, but she speaks Malayalam fluently.
11. You have advanced powerful arguments; however, you have not convinced me.
12. He has scored high marks, so he need not worry about his results.
13. He is rich, but he is not happy.
14. Make haste, or you will be late.
15. The piper advanced, and the children followed.
16. I called him, but he gave me no answer.
17. The Lok Sabha passed the bill, but the Rajya Sabha threw it out.
18. This coat cannot be mine, for it is too big.
19. She continued her dance for she found the audience very appreciative.
20. He seized her by the hair and beat her most unmercifully.
Answer
1. Run all the way so as not to be late.
2. He was delighted at his good luck in getting back his stolen computer.
3. Handing over this note, he left the place.
4. Being very poor, he often suffered great hardships.
5. Everyone except me attended the function.
6. You will be respected only by respecting others.
7. For all his knowledge he could not earn money.
8. Climbing up the stairs, he fell down.
The verb was climbing is changed into the present participle (climbing)
9. Having found the light poor, the umpires decided to postpone the match.
The verb found is changed into perfect participle (having found)
10. In spite of being a Bengali, she speaks Malayalam fluently.
11. Your powerful arguments have not convinced me.
12. Having scored high marks, he need not worry about his result.
13. In spite of being rich, he is not happy.
14. Make haste so as not to be late.
15. The piper advancing, the children followed.
Two separate subjects: 1) the piper 2) the children. In the simple sentence both of them should be present.
16. In spite of my calling him, he gave me no answer.
17. The Lok Sabha having passed the bill, the Rajya Sabha threw it out.
18. This coat is too big to be mine.
19. Having found the audience very appreciative, she continued her dance.
20. Seizing her by the hair he beat her most unmercifully.

Complex sentences into a Simple sentence
1. The speaker, who was a man of great experience, explained the economic policy of the govt.
2. Tell me the exact time when you will come.
3. Please explain what you mean.
4. It is obvious that you are guilty.
5. Under the circumstances that now exist there is no advice that I can offer you.
6. He has never left the town where he was born.
7. Does he know the consequences if he refuses?
8. The boy ran as fast as he could.
9. Although he has failed twice he will try again.
10. He stayed at home because he was ill.
11. It was so dark that you could not see your hand.
12. She stood as if turned to stone.
13. No sooner did he see us than he moved towards us.
14. As she was not there, I spoke to her mother.
15. The longer you wait here, the darker it will become.
16. He was so tired that he could not walk.
17. Since he is an intelligent man, he cannot be fooled.
18. You will pass if you work hard.
Answer
1. The speaker of great experience explained the economic policy of the govt.
One verb (was) is eliminated.
2. Tell me the exact time of your coming.
Will come is changed into a gerund (coming)
3. Please explain your meaning.
The verb, mean, is changed into a gerund (meaning)
4. Your guilt is obvious.
5. Under the present circumstances, I have no advice to offer you.
6. He has never left his native town.
7. Does he know the consequences of his refusal?
8. The boy ran at his highest speed.
9. In spite of having failed twice, he will try again.
Verb has failed is changed into perfect participle (having failed)
10. Because of his illness, he stayed at home.
11. It was too dark to see your hand.
“so…that” structure forms a complex sentence.
“too…to” forms a simple sentence.
12. She stood like stone.
13. Immediately on seeing us he moved towards us.
14. In her absence, I spoke to her mother.
15. Darkness increases in proportion to the period of our waiting here.
16. He was too tired to walk.
17. Being an intelligent man, he cannot be fooled.
18. You will pass by working hard.

Two Simple sentences into a Simple sentence
1. The rich must help the poor. It is their obligation.
2. He was a painter. He was also an actor.
3. He closed the door. He went away.
4. I asked him ten questions. I wanted to assess his ability.
5. He read the answer sheet. Then he tore it up.
6. He is very short. He cannot touch the roof.
7. The stone is very hard. He cannot cut it.
8. He worked hard. Yet he failed.
9. He was tired of reading. He started to play chess.
10. He is childish. Yet he has achieved many things.
11. The police arrived. The mob dispersed.
12. The sun set. They had not finished the game.
13. Abdul Kalam Azad was the minister for education. He had talks with Nehru.
14. He will pass. It is certain.
15. You can smoke here. I have no objection.
16. He gave up his situation. He was not satisfied with his salary.
17. I received no answer. I knocked a second time.
18. The police arrested the culprit. They sent him to jail.
Answer
1. It is the obligation of the rich to help the poor.
2. Besides being a painter, he was also an actor.
3. Closing the door, he went away.
The verb closed is changed into its participle, closing
4. I asked him ten questions to assess his ability.
The verb wanted is eliminated. To assess is an infinitive
5. Having read the answer sheet, he tore it up.
The verb read is changed into its perfect participle having read
6. He is too short to touch the roof.
The structure, too….to, makes a simple sentence
7. The stone is too hard for him to cut.
Two verbs carry two separate subjects, the stone and he. In the too…to construct both of them must be present. The second subject comes with for just before the to infinitive (to cut)
8. In spite of his hard work, he failed.
9. Being tired of reading, he started to play chess.
10. In spite of his foolishness, he has achieved many things.
11. The police having arrived, the mob dispersed.
The verb arrived is changed into a perfect participle, having arrived
12. The boys had not finished the game by sun set.
13. Abdul Kalam Azad, the minister for education, had talks with Nehru.
14. Certainly he will pass.
15. I have no objection to your smoking here.
16. Not satisfied with his salary, he gave up his situation.
17. Receiving no answer, I knocked a second time.
18. Arresting the culprit, the police sent him to jail.

Complex sentence into Compound sentence
1. He is unhappy though he is rich.
2. She was punished because she had violated the rule.
3. If we do not hurry, we shall surely miss the train.
4. Unless you study very hard, you will not pass the examination.
5. The girl who is sitting on the last bench is intelligent.
6. We liked the story which had a happy ending.
7. It is really surprising that he has not yet been arrested by the police.
8. We can prove that a molecule of water is made up of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen.
9. I am quite certain that Mittu has stolen my book.
10. If he comes here, he will surely help me.
Answer
1. He is rich, yet unhappy.
2. She had violated the rule and so she was punished.
3. We must hurry, or else we shall surely miss the train.
4. You must study very hard, else you will not pass the examination.
5. A girl is sitting on the last bench and she is intelligent.
6. The story had a happy ending and so we liked it.
7. He has not yet been arrested by the police and it is really surprising.
8. A molecule of water is made up of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen, and we can prove this.
9. Mittu has stolen my book, and of this I am quite certain.
10. He may come here, and, if he does so, he will surely help me.
Two main clauses and one subordinate clause

Compound Sentence into Complex Sentence
1. Respect others or others will not respect you.
2. He will study biology for he wants to become a doctor.
3. Run all the way, or else you will be late.
4. He got back his stolen book, and was delighted at his good luck.
5. She arrived at home and she found her son missing.
6. He was climbing up the stairs and fell down.
7. He had taken bath and put on new clothes.
8. He is rich but he is not happy.
9. He had a dog and it was beautiful.
10. Stop smoking or else you will suffer from lung disease.
11. We had finished the work and went home.
12. He fought bravely and the king made him commander-in-chief.
13. He tried hard, but he did not succeed.
14. He is a man of great erudition, but still he is very humble.
15. You must apologize or else you will not be forgiven.
16. He was a fool so he disregarded my advice.
17. He behaved rudely and so he antagonized all his fellow workers.
18. He was disobedient and so I had to punish him.
19. He was unlucky, and so he was unable to get the job.
20. He had knowledge but he could not earn money.
Answer
1. If you respect others, otherswill respect you.
2. He will study biology because he wants to become a doctor.
3. If you do not run all the way, you will be late.
4. When he got back his stolen book, he was delighted at his good luck.
5. When she arrived at home, she found her son missing.
6. While he was climbing up the stairs, he fell down.
7. When she had taken bath, he put on new clothes.
8. Although he is rich, he is not happy.
9. He had a dog that was beautiful.
10. If you do not stop smoking, you will suffer from lung disease.
11. We went home after we had finished the work.
12. The king made him commander-in-chief because he fought bravely.
13. Even if he tried hard, he did not succeed.
14. Though he is a man of great erudition, he is very humble.
15. If you do not apologize, you will not be forgiven.
16. He disregarded my advice because he was a fool.
17. As he behaved rudely, he antagonized all his fellow workers.
18. I had to punish him because he was disobedient.
19. He was unable to get the job because he was unlucky.
20. Although he had knowledge, he could not earn money.

Assertive Sentence to Exclamatory Sentence
1. He is really clever.
2. Those are very beautiful flowers.
3. He is a very kind man.
4. My greatest ambition is to win the first prize.
5. It was a very lame excuse.
6. The night is very beautiful.
7. Man is a wonderful piece of work
8. We have been very fortunate.
9. I wish I had wings of a dove.
10. I wish I were young.
11. It is very hot today.
12. It is a very wonderful opportunity.
13. This is indeed a great pleasure.
14. He is truly noble.
15. We are very happy here.
Answer
1. How clever he is!
2. What beautiful flowers those are!
3. What a kind man he is!
4. If only I could win the first prize!
5. What a very lame excuse!
6. How beautiful is the night!
7. What a piece of work is man!
8. How fortunate we have been!
9. Oh for the wings of a dove!
10. Oh that I were young!
11. How hot it is today!
12. What a wonderful opportunity!
13. What a great pleasure it is!
14. How noble he is!
15. How happy we are here!

Exclamatory Sentence into Assertive Sentence
1. O that I were a bird!
2. What a convincing victory for our team!
3. If only I were in my own country!
4. O that spring were eternal!
5. How noble of him to build this old age home!
6. How young and brilliant!
7. O that I were young again!
8. O! what a fall was there, my countrymen
9. What a nice bird it is!
10. How cold it is today!
11. What a lovely day!
12. How tall the boy has grown!
13. What a wonderful sunset!
14. How beautiful the scenery is!
15. Had I but seen her once more!
Answer
1. I really wish that I were a bird!
2. Our team has scored a very convincing victory.
3. I really wish that I were in my own country.
4. I really wish that spring were eternal.
5. It is really noble of him to build this old age home.
6. He is very young and brilliant.
7. I wish I were young again.
8. There was indeed, a terrible fall, my countrymen.
9. It is a very nice bird.
10. It is very cold today.
11. It is a very lovely day.
12. The boy has grown very tall.
13. It is a very wonderful sunset.
14. The scenery is very beautiful.
15. I wish I had seen her once more.

Interrogative Sentence into Assertive Sentence
1. Is that the way you should behave?
2. Can we ever forget the heroism of our patriots?
3. Is not wisdom better than riches?
4. Is there any sense in doing that?
5. Who does not know that two and two makes four?
6. Who can serve god and mammon?
7. What though we should lose the game?
8. Is the girl dancing in the hall?
9. Has he got a bad tooth?
10. Why should you waste time trying to do the impossible?
Answer
1. That is not the way you should behave.
2. We can never forget the heroism of our patriots.
3. Wisdom is much better than riches.
4. There is no sense in doing that.
5. Everyone knows that two and two makes four.
6. No man can serve god and mammon.
7. It would not matter even if we should lose the game.
8. The girl is dancing in the hall.
9. He has got a bad tooth.
10. You should not waste time trying to do the impossible.

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